Skip to Main Content
It looks like you're using Internet Explorer 11 or older. This website works best with modern browsers such as the latest versions of Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and Edge. If you continue with this browser, you may see unexpected results.
What is the Chicago Manual of Style?
The Chicago Manual of Style was originally created in 1937 by Kate L. Turabian at the University of Chicago. It is most commonly used by writers in the fields of History, Literature, and the Arts.
Chicago Style features two different methods of citation that can be used:
- Author-Date Style
- This method of citation uses specific parenthetical citations throughout your work and a bibliography at the end of your work, arranged in alphabetical order, that provides full details about your cited sources.
- Footnotes-Bibliography Style - This is the method that you will use in your Art History and History courses at Columbia College.
- This method of citation employs footnotes or endnotes for specific citations and a bibliography at the end of your work, arranged in alphabetical order, that provides full details about your sources.
General Guidelines for Using Footnotes-Bibliography Style
Footnotes are generally structured as follows:
- First time adding a footnote for a source: Full citation details including author/creator name(s), title information, publication information, and page(s) cited. Details vary depending on the source type. Place a superscript number at the end of a quote or paraphrased section. Citation numbers should appear in sequential order.
- Subsequent footnotes for a source (also known as 'shortened footnotes'): Author’s last name, title or partial title, page(s) cited. (See sec. 14.29-14.34, Chicago Manual).
Bibliography entries generally contain, in the following order:
- Author/creator information
- Title information (titles may be in “quotation marks” or in italics, depending on the source type)
- Publication information (e.g. place of publication, publisher name, and publication date for a book; volume and issue number for a journal article; DOI [Digital Object Identifier] or URL for an online resource)
Adapted from The University of Alberta Chicago Citation Style QuickGuide
Commonly Used Terms
Bibliography: Contains details on ALL the sources cited in a text or essay, and supports your research and/or premise.
Citation: The details about one source you are citing.
Citing: The process of acknowledging the sources of your information and ideas.
Footnotes: Notes placed at the end of the page in your paper to cite sources found on that page.
Paraphrasing: Taking information that you have read and putting it into your own words.
Plagiarism: Taking the ideas or words of another person and using them as your own.
Quoting: Copying words of text originally published elsewhere.
Shortened Footnote: A subsequent footnote that includes enough information for readers to find the full citation in your bibliography or in an earlier footnote.
What Kind of Source Is This?
Sample Paper with Bibliography
This sample paper can be used as a template to set up your assignment. It includes a title page, main body paragraph with footnotes, and a bibliography.
Do You Need Citation Help?
Stop by the library and speak with a Librarian, or use the chat box below to chat with a Librarian from home.
This citation guide is based on the Chicago Manual of Style (17th ed.). The contents are accurate to the best of our knowledge.