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Chicago Citation Guide (17th Edition): Bibliography & Sample Paper

Sample Paper with Bibliography

This sample paper can be used as a template to set up your assignment. It includes a title page, main body paragraph with footnotes, and a bibliography.

Sample Paper with Appendix

If you are adding an appendix to your paper there are a few rules to follow that comply with Chicago guidelines:

  • The Appendix appears before the Bibliography
  • If you have more than one appendix you would name the first appendix Appendix A, the second Appendix B, etc.
  • The appendices should appear in the order that the information is mentioned in your essay
  • Each appendix begins on a new page

End-of-Paper Checklist

Finished your assignment? Use this checklist to be sure you haven't missed any information needed for Chicago style.

Quick Rules for a Chicago Bibliography

Your research paper ends with a list of all the sources cited in the text of the paper. This is called a bibliography.

See an example in the "Sample Paper with Bibliography" box on this page.

Here are nine quick rules for this list:

  1. Start a new page for your bibliography (e.g. If your paper is 4 pages long, start your bibliography on page 5).
  2. Centre the title, Bibliography, at the top of the page and do not bold or underline it. Look for the alignment option in Word. 
  3. Leave two blank lines between the title and the first entry on your list.
  4. Single-space the list, but leave one blank line between entries.
  5. Start the first line of each citation at the left margin; each subsequent line should be indented (also known as a "hanging indent").
  6. Put your list in alphabetical order. Alphabetize the list by the first word in the citation. In most cases, the first word will be the author’s last name. Where the author is unknown, alphabetize by the first word in the title, ignoring the words a, an, the.
  7. For each author, give the last name followed by a comma and the first name followed by a period.
  8. Italicize the titles of full works, such as: books, videos (films and television shows), artwork, images, maps, journals, newspapers, magazines.
  9. Do not italicize titles of parts of works, such as: articles from newspapers, magazines, or journals / essays, poems, short stories or chapter titles from a book / chapters or sections of an Internet document. Instead, use quotation marks.

General Formatting Guidelines

Page Order

Assemble your paper in the following order:

  • Title page
  • Body of paper
  • Appendix (if needed)
  • Bibliography


Use Times New Roman, Size 12 (unless otherwise instructed).

Margins and Indents

Your margins should be 1 inch on all sides.

Indent new paragraphs by one-half inch.


Double-space the main text of your paper.

Single-space the footnotes and bibliography, but add a blank line between entries.


Start numbering your pages on the second page of your paper (don't include the title page).

Put your page numbers in the header of the first page of text (skip the title page), beginning with page number 1. Continue numbering your pages to the end of the bibliography.


Place the footnote number at the end of the sentence in which you have quoted or paraphrased information from another source. The footnote number should be in superscript, and be placed after any punctuation.

Put your footnotes in the footer section of the page.

Digital Assignments: What do I need to Cite?

What am I legally required to cite in my digital assignment?

According to the Copyright Act, you must cite the sources (images, videos, books, websites, etc.) that you used in your digital assignment (29.21(1)(b)). You must cite the source (where you got the information from) and the creator of the content (if available). You must also make sure that any copyrighted materials you used in your assignment meet the conditions set out in section 29.21 of the Copyright Act. For a list of conditions and more information, please visit:

What citation style do I use for the sources in my digital assignment?

There is no one required citation style, so please defer to your instructor's directions and citation style preference.

Digital Assignments: Where Do I List My Sources?

Seneca Libraries has the following recommendations for how to organize your list of sources for digital assignments. Please check with your instructor first:

Powerpoint you create: 

List your sources in a slide at the end of the Powerpoint presentation, with in-text citations throughout your presentation as applicable. You could also provide a print copy of the sources you used to those attending your presentation. 

Videos you create: 

List your sources in a credits screen at the end of the video.

Websites you create:

  • For images, include a citation under each image using this format “From: XXXX” and then make the image a link back to the original image (example - picture of little girl). Or list the citation at the bottom of the web page.
  • For quotes or material from other sources, include an in-text citation that links back to the original material (example – second paragraph).

Images you create: 

If possible list your sources at the bottom or side of the image (example). Otherwise, include a list of citations alongside the image wherever it’s uploaded (e.g. Flickr, Blackboard).

**Please note that the above are recommendations only and your instructor may have a preference and directions for how and where you list your sources for your assignment.**

If you don't receive specific instructions from your instructor, try to include your citations in a way that doesn't impact the design of your digital assignment.

For more information please contact Seneca Libraries copyright team at