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Chicago Citation Guide (17th Edition): Journal Articles

What is a DOI?

DOI Numbers for Journal Articles

Some electronic content like journal articles are assigned a unique number called a Digital Object Identifier (DOI). The DOI gives a way to find an article. If a DOI is provided for a journal article, include it after the page numbers of the article as "https://doi.org/DOI Number."

How Can I Tell if it's a Journal?

Journals on a shelf - photo from Flickr by the.Firebottle

Photo from Flickr under Creative Commons license, created by the.Firebottle

Not sure whether your article is from a journal? Look for these characteristics:

  • Main purpose is often to report results of original search
  • Articles usually have a very specific subject focus
  • May see sections such as abstract, discussion, results, and conclusion
  • Author of the article is an expert or specialist in the field and often their credentials are listed
  • Article is intended for students, scientists, researchers and/or professionals instead of the general public
  • Usually includes a References list at the end

Articles may also come from newspapers or magazines.

Formatting

Numbering:

  • Number your footnotes consecutively, starting at the beginning of your paper.

Footnotes:

  • Create a footnote citation on the same page as the quote or paraphrase used from that source.  Indent the first line of your footnote by 0.5 inches and begin with the appropriate full-size number, followed by a period and a space. 
  • Remember to insert this same number into the body of your paper as a superscript 3 after the final punctuation of the corresponding quote or paraphrase.

Shortened Footnotes:

  • If using the same source more than once in your paper, use the full footnote format the first time and this shortened footnote format after that: 

Author's Last Name(s), "Source Title (shortened to four words)," Exact Page Number(s) Used.  

Bibliography Entries: 

  • Arrange your sources alphabetically by the author's last name or the first available part of the entry.  If there are multiple sources by the same author, arrange those sources by author's last name, then by date, and then alphabetically by title. 
  • Each subsequent line after the first line of your citation should use a "hanging indent" and be indented by 0.5 inches.
  • Single space your entries, but leave one full blank line between each entry.  Leave two blank lines between the title "Bibliography" and the first entry.

Citing Four or More Authors

Footnote: List only the first author followed by et al. (“and others”). 

First Name Last Name et al.

Example: Jane Doe et al.

 There is no comma between the author's name and et al.


Bibliography: List all authors, up to ten authors.  Separate using commas and add the word and (not the ampersand symbol &) before the final author's names.  Only the first author's name is written in the format Last Name, First Name.  All others are written First Name Last Name.

First Author's Last Name, First Name, Second Author's First Name Last Name, Third Author's First Name Last Name, and Fourth Author's First Name Last Name.

Example: Doe, Jane, John Smith, Mary Plaine, and Jack Alman.

Volume, Issue, and Number in a Journal Citation

Journal Article From Library Database - One Author

Footnote:

1. Author's First Name Last Name, "Title of Article," Name of Journal Volume Number, no. Issue Number (Date of Publication): Page Number of Exact Citation, https://doi.org/DOI Number or Name of Database.

Bibliography Entry:

Author's Last Name, First Name. "Title of Article." Name of Journal Volume Number, no. Issue Number (Date of Publication): First Page Number of Article-Last Page Number of Article. https://doi.org/DOI Number or Name of Database.
 

Footnote Example 

1. Jorge Guillen, "Does Financial Openness Matter in the Relationship Between Financial Development and Income Distribution in Latin America?" Emerging Markets Finance & Trade 52, no. 2 (2016): 1148, https:/doi/org/10.1080/1540496X.2015.1046337.

Shortened Footnote Example

2. Guillen, "Does Financial Openness Matter?," 1152.

Bibliography Entry Example

Guillen, Jorge. "Does Financial Openness Matter in the Relationship Between Financial Development and Income Distribution in Latin America?" Emerging Markets Finance and Trade 52, no 2 (2016): 1145-1155. https:/doi/org/10.1080/1540496X.2015.1046337.

Journal Article From Library Database - Two Authors

Whenever possible, include the DOI number for the article rather than the database name.  If there is no DOI number, use the name of the database instead of the URL generated by the article's "Permanlink" icon or shown in the browser's address bar.

Footnote:

1. First Author's First Name Last Name and Second Author's First Name Last Name, "Title of Article," Name of Journal Volume Number, no. Issue Number (Date of Publication): Page Number of Exact Citation, https://doi.org/DOI Number or Name of Database.

Bibliography Entry:

First Author's Last Name, First Name, and Second Author's First Name Last Name. "Title of Article." Name of Journal Volume Number, no. Issue Number (Date of Publication): First Page Number of Article-Last Page Number of Article. https://doi.org/DOI Number or Name of Database.
 

Footnote Example 

1. Elizabeth Blodgett Salafia and Jessica Lemer,  "Associations Between Multiple Types of Stress and Disordered Eating Among Girls and Boys in Middle School," Journal of Child and Family Studies 21, no. 1 (January 2012): 149, Academic Search Complete.

Shortened Footnote Example

2. Salafia and Lemer, "Stress and Disordered Eating," 151.

Bibliography Entry Example

Salafia, Elizabeth Blodgett, and Jessica Lemer. "Associations Between Multiple Types of Stress and Disordered Eating Among Girls and Boys in Middle School." Journal of Child and Family Studies 21, no. 1 (January 2012): 148-57. Academic Search Complete.

Journal Article From Library Database - Three Authors

Footnote:

1. First Author's First Name Last Name, Second Author's First Name Last Name, and Third Author's First Name Last Name, "Title of Article," Name of Journal Volume Number, no. Issue Number (Date of Publication): Page Number of Exact Citation, https://doi.org/DOI Number or Name of Database.

Bibliography Entry:

First Author's Last Name, First Name, Second Author's First Name Last Name, and Third Author's First Name Last Name. "Title of Article." Name of Journal Volume Number, no. Issue Number (Date of Publication): First Page Number of Article-Last Page Number of Article. https://doi.org/DOI Number or Name of Database.
 

Footnote Example 

1. Louis Hoffman, Nathaniel Granger, and Lisa Vallejos, "An Existential-Humanistic Perspective on Black Lives Matter and Contemporary Protest Movements," Journal of Humanistic Psychology 56, no. 6 (2016): 595-597, https://doi-org/10.1177/0022167816652273.

Shortened Footnote Example

2. Hoffman, Granger, and Vallejos, "Existential-Humanistic Perspective," 602.

Bibliography Entry Example

Hoffman, Louis, Nathaniel Granger, and Lisa Vallejos. "An Existential-Humanistic Perspective on Black Lives Matter and Contemporary Protest Movements." Journal of Humanistic Psychology 56, no. 6 (2016): 595-611. https://doi-org/10.1177/0022167816652273.

Journal Article From Library Database - Four or More Authors

Footnote:

1. First Author's First Name Last Name et al., "Title of Article," Name of Journal Volume Number, no. Issue Number (Date of Publication): Page Number of Exact Citation, https://doi.org/DOI Number or Name of Database.

Bibliography Entry:

First Author's Last Name, First Name, Second Author's First Name Last Name, Third Author's First Name Last Name, and Fourth Author's First Name Last Name. "Title of Article." Name of Journal Volume Number, no. Issue Number (Date of Publication): First Page Number of Article-Last Page Number of Article. https://doi.org/DOI Number or Name of Database.
 

 If there are four or more authors: in the footnote, list only the first author, followed by et al. (“and others”); in the biography, list up to ten authors
 

Footnote Example 

1. Leanne Betasamosake Simpson et al., "Idle No More and Black Lives Matter: An Exchange (Panel Discussion)," Studies in Social Justice 12, no. 1 (Winter 2018): 77-79, Directory of Open Access Journals.

Shortened Footnote Example

2. Simpson et al., "Idle No More," 85.

Bibliography Entry Example

Simpson, Leanne Betasamosake, Rinaldo Walcott, Glen Coulthard, and Michael Moats. "Idle No More and Black Lives Matter: An Exchange (Panel Discussion)." Studies in Social Justice 12, no. 1 (Winter 2018): 75-89. Directory of Open Access Journals.

A Course Reading Uploaded to Moodle

 Whenever possible, find and cite the journal article from its original source, using the appropriate template from this guide.  Look for the article's original source using the Library databases or catalogue.  If the content was created by your instructor and was not published anywhere else, please use the appropriate template in Class Handouts, Presentations, and Readings.

Footnote: 

1. Author's First Name, Last Name, "Title of Document," in Course Name, uploaded by Instructor Name, upload date [if available] (Columbia College: Moodle, Semester and Year), pages of exact citation [if available].

Bibliography Entry: 

Author's Last Name, First Name. "Title of Document." In Course Name, uploaded by Instructor Name, upload date [if available]. Columbia College: Moodle, Semester and Year.

 

Footnote Example:

1. Sara Slinn, "Broader-Based and Sectoral Bargaining in Collective-Bargaining Law Reform: A Historical Review," in Economics 280, uploaded by Stephanie Saikal, March 30, 2021 (Columbia College: Moodle, Winter 2021), 15-17.

Shortened Footnote Example:

2. Slinn, "Collective-Bargaining Law Reform," 23.

Bibliography Entry Example:

Slinn, Sara. "Broader-Based and Sectoral Bargaining in Collective-Bargaining Law Reform: A Historical Review." In Economics 280, uploaded by Stephanie Saikal, March 30, 2021. Columbia College: Moodle, Winter 2021.

 

Journal Article From a Website

To cite a journal article from a website, use the same format as a journal article from a library database.  Instead of a DOI or database name, include the URL for the article.

Journal Article in Print - One Author

Footnote:

1. Author's First Name Last Name, "Title of Article," Name of Journal Volume Number, no. Issue Number (Date of Publication): Page Number of Exact Citation.

Bibliography Entry:

Author's Last Name, First Name. "Title of Article." Name of Journal Volume Number, no. Issue Number (Date of Publication): First Page Number of Article-Last Page Number of Article.

Footnote Example 

1. Anna Kushkova, "At the Center of the Table," Russian Studies in History 50, no. 1 (2011): 44.

Shortened Footnote Example

2. Kushkova, "Center of the Table," 54-59.

Bibliography Entry Example

Kushkova, Anna. "At the Center of the Table." Russian Studies in History 50, no. 1 (2011): 43-62.

Journal Article in Print - Two Authors

Footnote:

1. First Author's First Name Last Name and Second Author's First Name Last Name, "Title of Article," Name of Journal Volume Number, no. Issue Number (Date of Publication): Page Number of Exact Citation.

Bibliography Entry:

First Author's Last Name, First Name, and Second Author's First Name Last Name. "Title of Article." Name of Journal Volume Number, no. Issue Number (Date of Publication): First Page Number of Article-Last Page Number of Article.

Footnote Example 

1. Eun-Jung Ki and Linda Childers Hon, "A Measure of Relationship Cultivation Strategies," Journal of Public Relations Research 21, no. 1 (2009): 15.

Shortened Footnote Example

2. Ki and Hon, "Measure of Relationship Cultivation," 9-11.

Bibliography Entry Example

Ki, Eun-Jung, and Linda Childers Hon. "At the Center of the Table." A Measure of Relationship Cultivation Strategies," Journal of Public Relations Research 21, no. 1 (2009): 1-24.

Journal Article in Print - Three Authors

Footnote:

1. First Author's First Name Last Name, Second Author's First Name Last Name, and Third Author's First Name Last Name, "Title of Article," Name of Journal Volume Number, no. Issue Number (Date of Publication): Page Number of Exact Citation.

Bibliography Entry:

First Author's Last Name, First Name, Second Author's First Name Last Name, and Third Author's First Name Last Name. "Title of Article." Name of Journal Volume Number, no. Issue Number (Date of Publication): First Page Number of Article-Last Page Number of Article.

Footnote Example 

1. Ian D. Parkman, Alan Krause, and Samantha Pires, "The Diamond Model of Authentic Green Marketing: Evidence From the Sustainable Architecture Industry," Business and Society Review 123, no. 1 (2018): 92.

Shortened Footnote Example

2. Parkman, Krause, and Pires , "Authentic Green Marketing," 97-101.

Bibliography Entry Example

Parkman, Ian D., Alan Krause, and Samantha Pires. "The Diamond Model of Authentic Green Marketing: Evidence From the Sustainable Architecture Industry." Business and Society Review 123, no. 1 (2018): 83-118.

Journal Article in Print - Four or More Authors

Footnote:

1. First Author's First Name Last Name et al., "Title of Article," Name of Journal Volume Number, no. Issue Number (Date of Publication): Page Number of Exact Citation.

Bibliography Entry:

First Author's Last Name, First Name, Second Author's First Name Last Name, Third Author's First Name Last Name, and Fourth Author's First Name Last Name. "Title of Article." Name of Journal Volume Number, no. Issue Number (Date of Publication): First Page Number of Article-Last Page Number of Article.

Footnote Example 

1. Blake Hassanatu et al., "Black, Indigenous, People of Colour, and International Students: Experiences and Resolutions Beyond COVID-19," American Journal of Public Health 111, no. 3 (March 2021): 384.

Shortened Footnote Example

2. Hassanatu et al., "Resolutions Beyond COVID-19," 385-386.

Bibliography Entry Example

Hassanatu, Blake, Nashira Brown, Claudia Follette, Jessica Morgan, and Hairui Yu. "Black, Indigenous, People of Colour, and International Students: Experiences and Resolutions Beyond COVID-19." American Journal of Public Health 111, no. 3 (March 2021): 384-386.