There are two ways to integrate others' research into your assignment: you can paraphrase or you can quote.
is when you reword a passage from someone else's work, expressing the ideas in your own words, not just changing a few words here and there. You must include a footnote number at end of the paraphrased section and a footnote at the bottom of the page.
is when you copy a selection from someone else's work, phrasing it exactly it was originally written. When quoting, you place quotation marks (" ") around the selected passage to show where the quote begins and where it ends. You must include a footnote number at end of the quotation and a footnote at the bottom of the page.
Each time you refer to a source in your writing, whether through a direct quote, paraphrase, or summary, you must include a corresponding footnote that provides bibliographic information about the original source.
Whenever you refer to material from a source, you must insert a "footnote number" at the end of the paraphrased section or direct quotation. This directs readers to a corresponding footnote (with the same footnote number) at the bottom of the page on which the reference to the source is made. The first footnote number will be 1, the second will be 2, and so on. In the body of your text you use superscript (like this1) for the footnote number, while in the footnote you use a regular number followed by a period.
For examples of footnotes, see the box called "Examples of Full Footnotes Followed by Shortened Footnotes" further down this page.
In Chicago style, the first time you cite a particular source you must provide a full footnote citation. If you refer to the same source again in your paper, you do not need to repeat the same full citation. Instead, you provide a shortened version of the footnote, which includes enough information for the reader to find the full citation in your bibliography or in an earlier footnote.
Shortened footnotes should include the author’s last name, a shortened version of the title (if longer than four words), and any other directing information, such as page numbers (when available).
For examples of shortened footnotes, see the box called "Examples of Full Footnotes Followed by Shortened Footnotes" further down this page.
1. Steven J. Kirsh, Children, Adolescents, and Media Violence: A Critical Look at the Research, 2nd ed. (Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications, 2006), 22.
2. Elizabeth Blodgett Salafia and Jessica Lemer, "Associations Between Multiple Types of Stress and Disordered Eating Among Girls and Boys in Middle School," Journal of Child and Family Studies 21, no. 1 (January 2012): 149, Academic Search Complete.
3. Amy Morin, "Mom Am I Fat?: Helping Your Teen Have a Positive Body Image," Verywell Family, About Inc., January 18, 2019, www.verywellfamily.com/media-and-teens-body-image-2611245.
4. Kirsh, Children, Adolescents, and Media, 30.
5. Salafia and Lemer, "Stress and Disordered Eating," 151.
6. Morin, "Mom Am I Fat?"
When you quote directly from a source, enclose the quoted section in quotation marks. Add a footnote number at the end of the quote. The footnote number should be in superscript, and be placed after any punctuation, like this:
"Here's a direct quote."1
One possible explanation is that "the humanities are viewed by many critics as outdated fields."1
1. “Art History and World Art History," Khan Academy, accessed May 30, 2021, khanacademy.org/humanities/approaches-to-art-history/approaches-art-history/introduction-art-history/a/art-history-and-world-art-history.
When you write information or ideas from a source in your own words, cite the source by adding a footnote number at the end of the paraphrased portion. The footnote number should be in superscript, and be placed after any punctuation, like this:
This is a paraphrase.1
Improving access to credit is one way to reduce income inequality,1 which can help break the cycle of poverty.
1. Jorge Guillen, "Does Financial Openness Matter in the Relationship Between Financial Development and Income Distribution in Latin America?" Emerging Markets Finance & Trade 52, no. 2 (2016): 1148, https:/doi/org/10.1080/1540496X.2015.1046337.
If your quotation is longer than five lines, or more than 100 words, it is a considered a long quotation. This can also be referred to as a block quotation. Long quotations should be single-spaced, with a blank line inserted before and after the quotation to separate it from the rest of your text.
Rules for Long Quotations
There are 3 rules that apply to long quotations that are different from regular quotations:
Example of a Long Quotation
At the end of Lord of the Flies the boys are struck with the realization of their behaviour:
The tears began to flow and sobs shook him. He gave himself up to them now for the first time on the island; great, shuddering spasms of grief that seemed to wrench his whole body. His voice rose under the black smoke before the burning wreckage of the island; and infected by that emotion, the other little boys began to shake and sob too.1