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Chicago Citation Guide (17th Edition): Websites

What Date Should I Use?

You only need to include one date when citing a web page. See the options below.

Best option: Use the “last modified” date. Sometimes this is called “last updated” or “last edited.”

Second-best option: Sometimes there is no “last modified” date. In this case, you can use the copyright date.

Third-best option: Sometimes there is no date at all on the web page. In this case, state the “Accessed” date. The "Accessed" date is the date that you visited the web page. When you are using this option you need to state the word "Accessed" before the date. 

Example: Accessed January 17, 2022.

Tips

Author

It can sometimes be difficult to find out who the author of a website is. Remember that an author can be a corporation or group, not only a specific person. Author information can sometimes be found under an "About" section on a website.

If there is no known author, start the citation with the title of the website instead.

Publisher

The owner or sponsor of a website is considered to be the publisher. This information can often be found in a copyright notice at the bottom of the home page or on a page that gives information about the site. 

Date

The best date to use for a website is the date that the content was last updated. Otherwise look for a copyright or original publication date. Unfortunately this information may not be provided or may be hard to find. Often date information is put on the bottom of the pages of a website.

If you do not know the complete date, put as much information as you can find. For example you may have a year but no month or day.

Access Date

If the website does not show a copyright date or the date it was last modified/updated, you should include the date you last accessed the site.

Website - Known Author

Footnote:

1. Author's First Name Last Name, Title of Website, Name of Owner or Sponsor of the Website [if different from Title of Website], Date of copyright or modification or access, URL. 

Bibliography Entry:

Author's Last Name, First Name. Title of Website. Name of Owner or Sponsor of the Website [if different from Title of Website]. Date of copyright or modification or access. URL.

Footnote Example

1. Amanda Mabillard, Shakespeare Online, last modified March 27, 2021www.shakespeare-online.com.

Shortened Footnote Example

2. Mabillard, Shakespeare Online.

Bibliography Entry Example

Mabillard, Amanda. Shakespeare Online. Last modified March 27, 2021. www.shakespeare-online.com.

Page or Document on a Website - Created by a Corporation, Group, or Organization

Footnote:

1. "Title of Page or Document," Title of Website, Name of Corporation, Group, or Organization Associated with the Website [if different from Title of Website], Date of copyright or modification or access, URL. 

Bibliography Entry:

Name of Corporation, Group, or Organization Associated with the Website. "Title of Page or Document." Title of Website [if different from Name of Corporation, Group, or Organization]. Date of copyright or modification or access. URL.

Footnote Example

1. "Audit and Assurance," Chartered Professional Accountants Canada, 2016, www.cpacanada.ca/en/business-and-accounting-resources/audit-and-assurance.

Shortened Footnote Example

2. Chartered Professional Accountants Canada, "Audit and Assurance."

Bibliography Entry Example

Chartered Professional Accountants Canada. "Audit and Assurance."  2016. www.cpacanada.ca/en/business-and-accounting-resources/audit-and-assurance.

Page or Document on a Website - Known Author

Footnote:

1. Author's First Name Last Name, "Title of Page or Document," Title of Website, Name of Owner or Sponsor of the Website [if different from Title of Website], Date of copyright or modification or access, URL. 

Bibliography Entry:

Author's Last Name, First Name. "Title of Page or Document." Title of Website. Name of Owner or Sponsor of the Website [if different from Title of Website]. Date of copyright or modification or access. URL.

Footnote Example

1. Amy Morin, "Mom Am I Fat?: Helping Your Teen Have a Positive Body Image," Verywell Family, About Inc., January 18, 2019, www.verywellfamily.com/media-and-teens-body-image-2611245. 

Shortened Footnote Example

2. Morin, "Mom Am I Fat?"

Bibliography

Morin, Amy.  "Mom Am I Fat?: Helping Your Teen Have a Positive Body Image." Verywell Family. About Inc. January 18, 2019. www.verywellfamily.com/media-and-teens-body-image-2611245. 

 

Example from Khan Academy

Footnote Example

1. Lynn Robinson. "Picasso, Guernica," Khan Academy, accessed May 30, 2021, https://www.khanacademy.org/humanities/art-1010/cubism-early-abstraction/cubism/a/picasso-guernica.

Shortened Footnote Example

2. Robinson, "Picasso, Guernica."

Bibliography

Robinson, Lynn  "Picasso, Guernica." Khan Academy. Accessed May 30, 2021. https://www.khanacademy.org/humanities/art-1010/cubism-early-abstraction/cubism/a/picasso-guernica.

 

Example of Artist Personal Website

 

Footnote Example

1. Michael Abraham. "Sculpture," Michael Abraham, accessed May 30, 2021, https://michaelabraham.com/sculpture/.

Shortened Footnote Example

2. Abraham, "Sculpture."

Bibliography

Abraham, Michael. "Sculpture." Michael Abraham. Accessed May 30, 2021. https://michaelabraham.com/sculpture/.

Page or Document on a Website - Unknown Author

Footnote:

1. "Title of Page or Document," Title of Website, Name of Owner or Sponsor of the Website [if different from Title of Website], Date of copyright or modification or access, URL. 

Bibliography Entry:

"Title of Page or Document." Title of Website. Name of Owner or Sponsor of the Website [if different from Title of Website]. Date of copyright or modification or access. URL.

Footnote Example

1. "How to Teach Yourself Guitar," eHow, Demand Media, accessed June 24, 2016, www.ehow.com/how_5298173_teach-yourself-guitar.html.

Shortened Footnote Example

2. "How to Teach."

Bibliography Entry Example

"How to Teach Yourself Guitar." eHow. Demand Media. Accessed June 24, 2016. www.ehow.com/how_5298173_teach-yourself-guitar.html.

 

Example from Khan Academy

Footnote Example

1. “Art History and World Art History," Khan Academy, accessed May 30, 2021, khanacademy.org/humanities/approaches-to-art-history/approaches-art-history/introduction-art-history/a/art-history-and-world-art-history.

 

Shortened Footnote Example

2. "Art History."

Bibliography Entry Example

“Art History and World Art History." Khan Academy. Accessed May 30, 2021. khanacademy.org/humanities/approaches-to-art-history/approaches-art-history/introduction-art-history/a/art-history-and-world-art-history.

Government Document from a Website

Footnote:

1. Name of Government Department, Agency or Committee, Title of Government Publication, Date of copyright or modification or access, Page Number [if available], URL. 

Bibliography Entry:

Name of Government Department, Agency or Committee. Title of Government Publication. Date of copyright or modification or access. URL.

Footnote Example

1. Competition Bureau of Canada, Highlights from the Competition Bureau’s Workshop on Emerging Competition Issues, March 4, 2016, 3, www.competitionbureau.gc.ca/eic/site/cb-bc.nsf/vwapj/cb-Workshop-Summary-Report-e.pdf/$FILE/cb-Workshop-Summary-Report-e.pdf. 

Shortened Footnote Example

2. Competition Bureau of Canada, Highlights, 10.  

Bibliography Entry Example

Competition Bureau of Canada. Highlights from the Competition Bureau’s Workshop on Emerging Competition Issues. March 4, 2016. www.competitionbureau.gc.ca/eic/site/cb-bc.nsf/vwapj/cb-Workshop-Summary-Report-e.pdf/$FILE/cb-Workshop-Summary-Report-e.pdf. 

Blog Post

Footnote:

1. Author's First Name Last Name, "Title of Blog Post," Title of Blog, Name of Publication [if blog is part of a larger publication], Date of Post, URL. 

Bibliography Entry:

Author's Last Name, First Name. "Title of Blog Post." Title of BlogName of Publication [if blog is part of a larger publication]. Date of Post. URL. 

Add (blog) after the title of the blog unless the word blog is already included in the title.

Footnote Example

1. Darren Naish, "If Bigfoot Were Real," Tetrapod Zoology (blog), Scientific American, June 27, 2016, blogs.scientificamerican.com/tetrapod-zoology/if-bigfoot-were-real/.

Shortened Footnote Example

2. Naish, "If Bigfoot Were Real".

Bibliography Entry Example

Naish, Darren. "If Bigfoot Were Real." Tetrapod Zoology (blog). Scientific American. June 27, 2016. blogs.scientificamerican.com/tetrapod-zoology/if-bigfoot-were-real/.

Wikipedia

Footote:

1. Wikipedia, s.v. "Title of Entry," Date last modified, Time stamp, URL.

Bibliography Entry:

Wikipedia, s.v. "Title of Entry." Date last modified. Time stamp. URL.

 Time stamp refers to the time the article was last modified. The date and time the article was last modified appear at the bottom of each Wikipedia article.

Keep in mind that Wikipedia may not be considered an acceptable source for a college or university assignment. Be sure to evaluate the content carefully and check with your instructor if you can use it as a source in your assignment.

Footnote Example

1. Wikipedia, s.v. "Body Image," last modified April 3, 2021, 01:34, en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Body_image. 

Shortened Footnote Example

2. "Body Image."

Bibliography Entry Example

Wikipedia, s.v. "Body Image." Last modified April 3, 2021, 01:34. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Body_image.

Facebook

Footnote:

1. Author of Post's First Name Last Name [or Account Name], "Text of the post up to 160 characters," Facebook, Date of Post, URL. 

Bibliography Entry:

Author of Post's Last Name, First Name [or Account Name]. "Text of the post up to 160 characters." Facebook, Date of Post. URL. 

 If the Facebook account is for a group or organization, use the account name in place of an author name. E.g. The New York Times.

Footnote Example

1. Rick Mercer. "Hey Democracy, look what I did.," Facebook, October 14, 2015, https://www.facebook.com/165520333793158/photos/a.169211226757402/169210553424136/.

Shortened Footnote Example

2. Mercer, "Hey Democracy."

Bibliography Entry Example

Mercer, Rick. "Hey Democracy, look what I did." Facebook, October 14, 2015. https://www.facebook.com/165520333793158/photos/a.169211226757402/169210553424136/.

Website Dates: Copyright, Last Modified/Updated, Accessed

Content on websites will either have a copyright date, a date last modified or updated, or have no date. If there is no date, you must include the date you accessed the website.

Examples: Copyright Date

Footnote:

1. Amy Morin, "Mom Am I Fat?: Helping Your Teen Have a Positive Body Image," Verywell Family, About Inc., January 18, 2019, www.verywellfamily.com/media-and-teens-body-image-2611245.

Bibliography:

Morin, Amy. "Mom Am I Fat?: Helping Your Teen Have a Positive Body Image." Verywell Family. About Inc. January 18, 2019. www.verywellfamily.com/media-and-teens-body-image-2611245. 

Examples: Date Last Modified or Updated

Footnote:

1. Alex Migdal, "B.C. Records 737 New Cases of COVID-19, Highest Number in More Than 2 Months," CBC News, CBC/Radio-Canada, last updated March 20, 2021, https://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/british-columbia/covid-19-update-april-19-1.5957145.

Bibliography:

Migdal, Alex. "B.C. Records 737 New Cases of COVID-19, Highest Number in More Than 2 Months." CBC News. CBC/Radio-Canada. Last updated March 20, 2021. https://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/british-columbia/covid-19-update-april-19-1.5957145.

Examples: No Date 

Footnote:

1. "How to Teach Yourself Guitar," eHow, Demand Media, accessed June 24, 2016, www.ehow.com/how_5298173_teach-yourself-guitar.html.

Bibliography:

"How to Teach Yourself Guitar." eHow. Demand Media. Accessed June 24, 2016. www.ehow.com/how_5298173_teach-yourself-guitar.html.

Citing Sources with Multiple Authors

Number of Authors Footnote Shortened Footnote Bibliography
Two Jane White and Brendan Holland White and Holland White, Jane, and Brendan Holland
Three Jane White, Brendan Holland, and Mary Marshall White, Holland, and Marshall White, Jane, Brendan Holland, and Mary Marshall
Four to Ten Jane White et al. White et al. White, Jane, Brendan Holland, Mary Marshall, and Stephen Wiley