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Chicago Citation Guide (17th Edition): Social Media

Tips

Author

If the real name of the author is unknown, use the screen name in place of the real name. If both screen name and real name are provided, put the real name first with the screen name following in parentheses.

E.g. John Smith (@screenname)

Creator information may often be found under a section called "About" for some types of social media, however this is not always standard.

Date

Dates should be written out in full. Example: September 5, 2012.

If no date is given, leave that information out of the citation. 

Errors in Spelling or Grammar in Tweets

In the citation, write out the actual Tweet and keep spelling and grammar the same as in the original, even if there are errors. However, when quoting the Tweet in your assignment, write [sic] in square brackets next to the errors to indicate the errors are not your own.

For example, if the Tweet was written "It isn't you're fault the media is violent", in your assignment, you will write: "It isn't you're [sic] fault the media is violent."

Time Stamps in Audio and Video Recordings

If you are referring to a particular section of an audio or video recording, include a time stamp in your citation. This is similar to giving a page number in a print source. Time stamps are given in the following format: hh:mm.

Blog Post

Footnote:

1. Author's First Name Last Name, "Title of Blog Post," Title of Blog, Name of Publication [if blog is part of a larger publication], Date of Post, URL. 

Bibliography Entry:

Author's Last Name, First Name. "Title of Blog Post." Title of BlogName of Publication [if blog is part of a larger publication]. Date of Post. URL. 

Add (blog) after the title of the blog unless the word blog is already included in the title.

Footnote Example

1. Darren Naish, "If Bigfoot Were Real," Tetrapod Zoology (blog), Scientific American, June 27, 2016, blogs.scientificamerican.com/tetrapod-zoology/if-bigfoot-were-real/.

Shortened Footnote Example

2. Naish, "If Bigfoot Were Real".

Bibliography Entry Example

Naish, Darren. "If Bigfoot Were Real." Tetrapod Zoology (blog). Scientific American. June 27, 2016. blogs.scientificamerican.com/tetrapod-zoology/if-bigfoot-were-real/.

Podcast Episode

Footnote:

1. Host's First Name Last Name, "Title of Podcast Episode," Date of Episode, in Name of Podcast, produced by Producer Name, podcast, File Format [if downloaded and not played in a web browser], Running Time, Time Stamp [if referencing a specific section of the episode], URL.

Bibliography Entry:

Host's Last Name, First Name. "Title of Podcast Episode." Produced by Producer Name. Name of Podcast. Date of Episode. Podcast, File Format [if downloaded and not played in a web browser], Running Time. Time Stamp [if referencing a specific section of the episode]. URL.

Footnote Example

1. Nahlah Ayed, "The Greenest Metaphor," April 1, 2021, in Ideas, produced by CBC Listen, podcast, 53:59, https://www.cbc.ca/listen/live-radio/1-23-ideas/clip/15835019-the-greenest-metaphor. 

Shortened Footnote Example

2. Ayed, "Greenest Metaphor."

Bibliography Entry Example

Ayed, Nahlah. "The Greenest Metaphor," Produced by CBC Listen. Ideas. April 1, 2021. Podcast, 53:59. https://www.cbc.ca/listen/live-radio/1-23-ideas/clip/15835019-the-greenest-metaphor. 

Streaming Video From a Website (YouTube, Vimeo, etc.)

Footnote:

1. Video Creator's First Name Last Name, "Title of Video," Name of Website, Date Posted, video, Running Time, URL. 

Bibliography Entry:

Video Creator's Last Name, First Name. "Title of Video." Name of Website. Date Posted. Video, Running Time. URL.

Footnote Example

1. Red Five Films, "Katy Jade Dobson - Artist Interview," YouTube, April 13, 2016, video, 3:45, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=C0jHfVrgC7M.

Shortened Footnote Example

2. Red Five Films, "Katy Jade Dobson."

Bibliography Entry Example

Red Five Films. "Katy Jade Dobson - Artist Interview." YouTube,.April 13, 2016. Video, 3:45. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=C0jHfVrgC7M.

 

Example from Khan Academy

Footnote Example

1. Beth Harris and Steven Zucker, "Why Study Art of the Past?," Khan Academy, accessed May 30, 2021, video, 2:21, https://www.khanacademy.org/humanities/approaches-to-art-history/approaches-art-history/introduction-art-history/v/why-study-art-of-the-past.

Shortened Footnote Example

2. Harris and Zucker, "Why Study Art?"

Bibliography Entry Example

Harris, Beth, and Steven Zucker. "Why Study Art of the Past?" Khan Academy. Accessed May 30, 2021. Video, 2:21. https://www.khanacademy.org/humanities/approaches-to-art-history/approaches-art-history/introduction-art-history/v/why-study-art-of-the-past.

Twitter (Tweets)

Footnote:

1. Author of Post's First Name Last Name (screen name), "Text of the tweet up to 160 characters," Twitter, Date of Post, URL. 

Bibliography Entry:

Author of Post's Last Name, First Name (screen name). "Text of the tweet up to 160 characters." Twitter, Date of Post. URL. 

 If the real name of the author is unknown, use the screen name in place of the real name.

Footnote Example

1. Sohaib Athar (@ReallyVirtual), "Helicopter hovering above Abbottad at 1AM (is a rare event).," Twitter, January 4, 2013, twitter.com/reallyvirtual/status/64780730286358528?lang=en.

Shortened Footnote Example

2. Athar, "Helicopter hovering."

Bibliography Entry Example

Athar, Sohaib (@ReallyVirtual). "Helicopter hovering above Abbottad at 1AM (is a rare event)." Twitter, January 4, 2013. twitter.com/reallyvirtual/status/64780730286358528?lang=en.

Wikipedia

Footote:

1. Wikipedia, s.v. "Title of Entry," Date last modified, Time stamp, URL.

Bibliography Entry:

Wikipedia, s.v. "Title of Entry." Date last modified. Time stamp. URL.

 Time stamp refers to the time the article was last modified. The date and time the article was last modified appear at the bottom of each Wikipedia article.

Keep in mind that Wikipedia may not be considered an acceptable source for a college or university assignment. Be sure to evaluate the content carefully and check with your instructor if you can use it as a source in your assignment.

Footnote Example

1. Wikipedia, s.v. "Body Image," last modified April 3, 2021, 01:34, en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Body_image. 

Shortened Footnote Example

2. "Body Image."

Bibliography Entry Example

Wikipedia, s.v. "Body Image." Last modified April 3, 2021, 01:34. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Body_image.

Facebook

Footnote:

1. Author of Post's First Name Last Name [or Account Name], "Text of the post up to 160 characters," Facebook, Date of Post, URL. 

Bibliography Entry:

Author of Post's Last Name, First Name [or Account Name]. "Text of the post up to 160 characters." Facebook, Date of Post. URL. 

 If the Facebook account is for a group or organization, use the account name in place of an author name. E.g. The New York Times.

Footnote Example

1. Rick Mercer. "Hey Democracy, look what I did.," Facebook, October 14, 2015, https://www.facebook.com/165520333793158/photos/a.169211226757402/169210553424136/.

Shortened Footnote Example

2. Mercer, "Hey Democracy."

Bibliography Entry Example

Mercer, Rick. "Hey Democracy, look what I did." Facebook, October 14, 2015. https://www.facebook.com/165520333793158/photos/a.169211226757402/169210553424136/.