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Chicago Citation Guide (17th Edition): No Author, No Date etc.

How to Alphabetize Titles in Bibliography

If there is no author given, your citation will start with the title of the work. You must put these citations in correct alphabetical order in your Bibliography.

When putting works in alphabetical order, ignore initial articles such as "the", "a", or "an". For example the title The Best of Canada would be alphabetized as if it started with the word Best instead of the word The.

If the title begins with a number, alphabetize it as if the number was spelled out. For example the title 5 Ways to Succeed in Business would be alphabetized under F as if it had started with the word Five .

For example, this is how the following titles would be alphabetized:

Anthropology in Action [A]
The Best of Canada [B... ignore "The"]
Easy Plant Care [E]
5 Ways to Succeed in Business [F... 5=Five]
A Special Kind of Madness [S... ignore "A"]

No Author

If no author or creator is provided, start the citation with the title of the work you are citing instead.

See box "How to Alphabetize Titles in Bibliography" on this page for more information.

 An author/creator won't necessarily be a person's name. It may be an organization or corporation, for example Health Canada or a username on a site such as YouTube.

No Date

Print Materials: if no publication date is provided, use the initials n.d. where you would normally put the date.

Online materials: if no copyright or modification date is provided, use the date that you accessed the material (e.g. accessed June 12, 2020).

No Page Numbers

Some sources, such as online materials, won't have page numbers provided. If this is the case, leave the page numbers out of the citation.

 If there are no page, chapter, paragraph, or section numbers in the original text, then don't include any. Never count pages or paragraphs yourself.

No Place of Publication

If there is no place of publication given, use the initials n.p. where you would normally put the place of publication.

Can't Find the Database Name?

If you find an article through the search bar on the main library page, you might be unsure which database the article is from, because this searches across many different databases.

You can find the name of the database a few ways:

Method 1. Click on the title of the article in the search results list. This will bring you to a page with a description of the article as well as other useful information. Scroll down to the bottom of this list of information, and you should see "Database" listed near the bottom.

Method 2. You can also find the name of the database in the summary of information just below the title of the article in the search results list. It will look something like this:

A Cross-National Study of Evolutionary Origins of Gender Shopping Styles: She Gatherer, He Hunter?

By: Dennis, Charles; Brakus, J. Joško; Ferrer, Gemma García; McIntyre, Charles; Alamanos, Eleftherios; King, Tamira. Journal of International Marketing. Dec2018, Vol. 26 Issue 4, p38-53. 16p. 1 Diagram, 3 Charts. DOI: 10.1177/1069031X18805505. , Database: Business Source Complete

Notice the name of the database is listed at the end.