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CRIM 203 (Historical Perspectives in Criminal Justice) Course Guide: Improve Your Searching

This guide helps you find ebooks and online resources, including primary sources, as you get started with your research. For additional help finding sources, ask a librarian!

Searching with Keywords

Combining Your Keywords

Many of the library's databases allow you to combine keywords using AND and OR.

Using AND to combine keywords will retrieve articles that include both of the terms, while using OR will retrieve articles that include either of the terms.

Look at the example below, which demonstrates how you could combine keywords in Academic Search Complete.

Searching with Synonyms

Synonyms are great to use when searching in databases, such as Academic Search Complete, because databases only bring back results which contain the exact words you typed in. If you don't include synonyms you could miss out on some relevant sources.

Synonyms can be combined using OR, as in the example below:


Confused? Watch the video below by UBC Libraries to learn how to use keywords in a library database. The same search strategies will work in the library's main search. 

Keywords to Subject headings

Topic / Ideas Library of Congress Subject heading
Prostitution in Canada
  • Prostitution -- Canada--History
  • Prostitutes
  • Brothels
  • Sex and law -- Canada
  • Women -- Legal status, laws,etc.
Aboriginal history of Canada
  • Indians of North America -- Canada -- History
  • First Nations
  • Native peoples -- Canada 
  • Indigenous peoples -- Canada
  • Metis (or other tribe names)
Sentencing in Canada
  • Sentences (Criminal procedure) -- Canada
  • Trials
  • Courts -- Canada
  • Judicial process -- Canada
Execution in Canadian History
  • Executions and executioners  -- Canada -- History
  • Hanging
  • Gallows
Racism in justice system
  • Discrimination in criminal justice administration -- Canada
  • Race discrimination -- Canada 
  • Equality before the law -- Canada
  • Crime and race -- Canada
Racism (or gender inequality in the news)
  • Racism in the press
  • Mass media and sex
  • Women -- Press coverage
  • Discrimination
  • Press coverage
Youth justice in Canada
  • Street youth -- Legal status, laws, etc -- Canada
  • Canada. Youth Juvenile Delinquents Act
  • Homeless youth 
  • Juvenile justice, Administration of -- Canada
Women in prison
  • Female offenders -- Canada
  • Women murderers -- Canada
  • Prison administration -- Canada
  • Correctional institutions -- Canada
  • Corrections
  • Imprisonment
Policing in Canada
  • Police -- Canada
  • Law enforcement -- Canada
  • Racial profiling in law enforcement -- Canada
Criminal justice
  • Criminal justice, Administration of
  • Corrections
  • Criminal courts
  • Sex discrimination in criminal justice administration 
  • Jurisprudence
Representation of crime
  • Mass media and criminal justice
  • Crime in mass media