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Quick Rules for an APA Reference List
Your research paper ends with a list of all the sources cited in the text of the paper. Here are nine quick rules for this Reference list.
- Start a new page for your Reference list. Centre the title, References, at the top of the page.
- Double-space the list.
- Start the first line of each reference at the left margin; indent each subsequent line five spaces (a hanging indent).
- Put your list in alphabetical order. Alphabetize the list by the first word in the reference. In most cases, the first word will be the author’s last name. Where the author is unknown, alphabetize by the first word in the title, ignoring the words a, an, the.
- For each author, give the last name followed by a comma and the first (and middle, if listed) initials followed by periods.
- Italicize the titles of these works: books, audiovisual material, internet documents and newspapers, and the title and volume number of journals and magazines.
- Do not italicize titles of most parts of works, such as: articles from newspapers, magazines, or journals / essays, poems, short stories or chapter titles from a book / chapters or sections of an Internet document.
- In titles of non-periodicals (books, videotapes, websites, reports, poems, essays, chapters, etc), capitalize only the first letter of the first word of a title and subtitle, and all proper nouns (names of people, places, organizations, nationalities).
- If a web source (not from the library) is not a stable archived version, or you are unsure whether it is stable, include a statement of the accessed date before the link.
Powerpoint Presentations - What Do I Need to Cite?
What am I legally required to cite in my digital assignment?
According to the Copyright Act, you must cite the sources (images, videos, books, websites, etc.) that you used in your digital assignment (29.21(1)(b)). You must cite the source (where you got the information from) and the creator of the content (if available). You must also make sure that any copyrighted materials you used in your assignment meet the conditions set out in section 29.21 of the Copyright Act. For a list of conditions and more information, please visit: http://studentcopyright.wordpress.com/mashups/
What citation style do I use for the sources in my digital assignment?
There is no one required citation style, so please defer to your instructor's directions and citation style preference.
Powerpoint Presentations - Where Do My Citations Go?
List your sources in a slide at the end of the Powerpoint presentation, with footnotes throughout your presentation as applicable.
You could also provide a print copy of the sources you used to those attending your presentation.
Other Digital Assignments - Where Do My Citations Go?
Seneca Libraries has the following recommendations for how to organize your list of sources for digital assignments. Please check with your instructor first:
Videos you create:
List your sources in a credits screen at the end of the video.
Websites you create:
- For images, include a citation under each image using this format “From: XXXX” and then make the image a link back to the original image (example - picture of little girl). Or list the citation at the bottom of the web page.
- For quotes or material from other sources, include an in-text citation that links back to the original material (example – second paragraph).
Images you create:
If possible list your sources at the bottom or side of the image (example). Otherwise, include a list of citations alongside the image wherever it’s uploaded (e.g. Flickr, Blackboard).
**Please note that the above are recommendations only and your instructor may have a preference and directions for how and where you list your sources for your assignment.**
If you don't receive specific instructions from your instructor, try to include your citations in a way that doesn't impact the design of your digital assignment.
For more information please contact Seneca Libraries copyright team at firstname.lastname@example.org