Skip to main content

APA Citation Guide (6th edition): Videos & DVDs

This guide shows you how to cite using APA 6th edition

Tips

Who to Credit - DVD or Film

Many people can be involved in the production of a video and not all need to be listed in the citation. Typically the director, producer and/or writer are the names that are used. To clarify what role the person has in the production, their job title such as Director is put after their name in round brackets if the job title is known.

Who to Credit - Streaming Video from a Website

For videos from websites such as YouTube or Vimeo, credit the person who posted the content. If a real name is provided, use that followed by the person's user name in square brackets. If the real name of the person who posted the content is not known, just use their user name without brackets.

Formatting

Note: All citations should be double spaced and have a hanging indent in a Reference List.

A "hanging indent" means that each subsequent line after the first line of your citation should be indented by 0.5 inches.

Streaming Video From a Website (YouTube, Vimeo, etc.) - Poster's Name Known

Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial. of person who posted the video if known. [User name that posted the video] . (Year video was posted, Month Day). Title of video [Video file]. Retrieved from URL

Note: According to APA, for citing purposes the person who posted the video is credited as the author.

Example

Nye, B. [TheRealBillNye]. (2009, April 8). Bill Nye the science guy on energy [Video file]. Retrieved from http://youtu.be/0ASLLiuejAo

In-Text Paraphrase

(Creator's Last Name, Year)

Example: (Nye, 2009)

In-Text Quote

(Creator's Last Name, Year)

Example: (Nye, 2009)

Note: Because videos typically do not have page numbers, paragraph numbers or section headings,this information is left out of the in-text citation.

Streaming Video From a Website (YouTube, Vimeo, etc.) -Poster's Name Not Known

User name that posted the video. (Year video was posted, Month Day). Title of video [Video file]. Retrieved from URL

Note: According to APA, for citing purposes the person who posted the video is credited as the author.

Example

All Aces Media. (2012, January 19). Often awesome the series [Video file]. Retrieved from http://vimeo.com/35311255

In-Text Paraphrase

(User name, Year)

Example: (All Aces Media, 2012)

In-Text Quote

(User name, Year)

Example: (All Aces Media, 2012)

Note: Because videos typically do not have page numbers, paragraph numbers or section headings,this information is left out of the in-text citation.

Streaming Video From a Subscription Media Website (Netflix, Amazon Prime, Hulu, etc.)

Producer's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if Given. (Producer). (Year of Publication). Title of Video [Streaming video]. Retrieved from http://xxxxxxx

Note: When you have one producer (Producer) is used after the producer's name. If you have more than one producer use (Producers) instead.

Example

Allen, T., et. al. (Producers). (2017).  The story of Diana [Streaming video]. Retrieved from http://www.netflix.com

In-Text Paraphrase

(Producer Last name, Year)

Example: (Allen, et. al., 2017)

In-Text Quote

(Producer Last name, Year)

Example: (Allen, et. al., 2017)

Note: Because videos typically do not have page numbers, paragraph numbers or section headings,this information is left out of the in-text citation.

Streaming Video From a Library Database (Criterion, NFB)

Name of Company/Organization that Provided Content or Creator's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial. if known. (Year video was created, Month Day if known). Title of video [Video file]. Retrieved from Database Name database.

Example

National Film Board of Canada. (2014). Making movie history: The women [Video file]. Retrieved from NFB Campus. 

In-Text Paraphrase

(Name of Company/Organization, Year)

Example: (National Film Board of Canada, 2014)

In-Text Quote

(Name of Company/Organization, Year)

Note: Because videos typically do not have page numbers, paragraph numbers or section headings,this information is left out of the in-text citation.

DVD With Named Producer, Director or Writer

Producer/Director/Writer's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if given. (Role(s) in Production e.g. Director, Writer, Producer). (Year DVD was produced). Title of DVD [DVD]. City of Publication, Province Code/State Code/Country: DVD Distributor if Known.

Note: For cities in the US and Canada list the city name and the province or state code. For other countries, list the city name and the country.

Example

Hallam, J. (Producer, Writer), & Lam, K. (Producer, Director). (2010). Staff relations in healthcare: Working as a team [DVD]. New York, NY: Insight Media.

Note: When you have more than one producer, writer and/or writer to credit, separate the names with a comma and put an ampersand (&) before the last person's last name.

For cities in the US and Canada list the city name and the province or state code. For other countries, list the city name and the country.

In-Text Paraphrase

(Producer/Director/Writer's Last Name, Year)

Example: (Hallam & Lam, 2010)

Note: This example has two people to credit, so both last names are given)

In-Text Quote

(Producer/Director/Writer's Last Name, Year)

Example: (Hallam & Lam, 2010)

Note: Because the DVD does not have page numbers, paragraph numbers or section headings,this information is left out of the in-text citation.

DVD With Unknown Producer, Director and/or Writer

Title of DVD [DVD]. (Year DVD was Produced). City of Publication, Province Code/State Code/Country: DVD Distributor if Known.

Note: When the Director, Producer and/or Writer is not known, start the citation with the DVD title.

For cities in the US and Canada list the city name and the province or state code. For other countries, list the city name and the country.

Example

Era of viruses [DVD]. (2006). Princeton, NJ: Films for the Humanities and Sciences.

Note: For cities in the US and Canada list the city name and the province or state code. For other countries, list the city name and the country.

In-Text Paraphrase

(Title Of DVD, Year)

Example: (Era Of Viruses, 2006)

Note: Italicize the title of the DVD and capitalize the words for the in-text citation.

In-Text Quote

(Title Of DVD, Year)

Example: (Era Of Viruses, 2006)

Note: Italicize the title of the DVD and capitalize the words for the in-text citation.

Because the DVD does not have page numbers, paragraph numbers or section headings,this information is left out of the in-text citation.

Television Series Episode

Writer, Producer and/or Director's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if given. (Job Title) if known. (Year the episode was originally aired). Title of episode [Television series episode]. In Executive Producer's First Initial. Last Name (Executive producer) if known, Television series name. City of production company, Two Letter Province or State Code/Country Name: Production Company.

Note: For cities in the US and Canada list the city name and the province or state code. For other countries, list the city name and the country.

Example

Young, R. (Writer, Producer, Director). (2010). Flying cheap [Television series episode]. In Frontline. Washington, DC: American University School of Communication's Investigative Reporting Workshop.

Note: For cities in the US and Canada list the city name and the province or state code. For other countries, list the city name and the country.

In-Text Paraphrase

(Writer, Producer and/or Director's Last Name, Year)

Example: (Young, 2010)

In-Text Quote

 (Writer, Producer and/or Director's Last Name, Year)

Example: (Young, 2010)

Note: Because the television episode does not have page numbers, paragraph numbers or section headings, this information is left out of the in-text citation.

Television Series Episode Viewed on a Subscription Media Website

Writer, Producer and/or Director's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if given. (Job Title) if known. (Year the episode was originally aired). Title of episode [Television series episode]. In Executive Producer's First Initial. Last Name (Executive producer) if known, Television series name [Streaming video]Retrieved from http://xxxxxx

Example

Attenborough, D. (Writer). (2001). Ocean world [Television series episode]. In A. Fothergill (Executive producer), Blue Planet: A Natural History of the Oceans [Streaming video]. Retrieved from http://www.netflix.com

In-Text Paraphrase

(Writer, Producer and/or Director's Last Name, Year)

Example: (Attenborough, 2001)

In-Text Quote

 (Writer, Producer and/or Director's Last Name, Year)

Example: (Attenborough, 2001)

Note: Because the television episode does not have page numbers, paragraph numbers or section headings, this information is left out of the in-text citation.

Movie/Film Viewed in a Theatre

Writer, Producer and/or Director's Last Name, Year, First Initial. Second Initial if given. (Job Title) if known. (Year the movie was produced). Title of movie: Subtitle if any [Motion picture] City of production company if known, Two Letter Province or State Code or Country Name: Production Company.

Example

Godfrey, W., & Rosenfelt (Producers), & Slade, D. (Director). (2010). The twilight saga: Eclipse [Motion picture]. United States: Summit Entertainment.

Note: For cities in the US and Canada normally list the city name and the province or state code. For other countries, list the city name and the country. In this example the specific city was not known.

In-Text Paraphrase

(Writer, Producer and/or Director's Last Name, Year)

(Godfrey, Rosenfelt, & Slade, 2010)

In-Text Quote

(Writer, Producer and/or Director's Last Name, Year)

(Godfrey, Rosenfelt, & Slade, 2010)

Note: Because the movie does not have page numbers, paragraph numbers or section headings,this information is left out of the in-text citation.