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HIST 110: Course Guide: Cite Sources

This guide is intended to help students in HIST 110 find resources for their research.

Why is citing so important?

Citing is a formal way of showing where you got information for your paper.

Citing is important for many reasons. Citing:

  • Shows your reader where you found your information and lets them go back to the original source to learn more 
  • Gives credit where credit is due! 
  • Provides your argument with credibility and shows that you've done your research

Your instructors don't expect you to be an expert. Instead, they want to see that you have read and understood credible sources written by people who are experts. Show them who you know, rather than what you know by citing all the sources you used to complete your assignment. 

How do I cite?

For instructions on how to cite your sources, check out the following guides. If you still have questions, ask a librarian! 

How to cite a map

Fig. X. Description of the map from: citation for source map was found in.

The caption for a map begins with a description of the map, then the complete Works Cited list citation for the source the map was found in. For example, if it was found on a website, cite the website. If it was in a magazine article, cite the magazine article.

Label your figures starting at 1.

Information about the figure (the caption) is placed directly below the image in your assignment.

If the map appears in your paper the full citation appears underneath the image (as shown below) and does not need to be included in the Works Cited List. If you are referring to a map but not including it in your paper you must provide an in-text citation and include an entry in the Works Cited List.

Example 1: Map from an atlas

Fig. 1. “The Last Ice Sheets, 18 000- 10 000 BC” from: Harris, R. Cole, editor. Historical Atlas of Canada: From the Beginning to 1800. University of Toronto Press, 1987, plate 1.

Example 2: Map from an online source

Fig. 2. Map of Yekooche Nation from: “Interactive Map.” BC Treaty Commission, 2019, http://www.bctreaty.ca/map. Accessed 26 Sept. 2019.

Citing Primary Sources: from a book

If you are using a primary source from one of the books on reserve, you can cite the document like a section from an anthology. 

Author's Last Name, First Name. "Title of Primary Source Document." Title of Book: Subtitle if Any, edited by Editor's First Name and Last Name, Edition if given and is not first, Publisher Name often shortened, Year of publication, Page numbers of the primary source.

Works Cited List Example  

Nelson, Robert. "Declaration of Independence of Lower Canada, February 1838." A History of Canada's Peoples: Beginnings to 1867. Margaret Conrad et al., 6th ed. vol 1, Pearson, 2015, pp. 256-257. 

  Note: The first author's name listed is the author of the primary source document

  Note: If there is no editor or main author given you may leave out that part of the citation.

In-Text Citation Example  

  (Author's Last Name Page Number)

  Example: (Nelson 257)

Citing Primary Sources: from an online collection

If you are using an online primary source from a website, follow the format below:

Author's Last Name, First Name. "Title of Primary Source Document: Subtitle." Year of creation.Title of Website, Publisher of Website, Publication Date, URL. Accessed Day Month Year.

Works Cited List Example  

Lord, J.K. "American Furs: How Trapped and Traded." [c. 1866]. Canadiana Online,  eco.canadiana.ca/view/oocihm.18349. Accessed 25 Oct. 2017.

  Note: The first author's name listed is the author of the primary source document

  Note: If the Publisher information is the same as the name of the website, you do not have to repeat it.

  Note: If you only have an approximate date of creation, put it in square brackets. Example: [c. 1920]  The "c." is an abbreviation of circa ("about" in Latin).

In-Text Citation Example  

  (Author's Last Name Page/Image Number)

  Example: (Lord 3)

Citing Primary Sources: from a library database

If you are using an online primary source from an online database, follow the format below:

Author's Last Name, First Name. "Title of Primary Source Document: Subtitle." Title of Journal, vol. Volume Number, no. Issue Number, Date of Publication, pp. First Page Number-Last Page Number. Name of Database, doi:DOI number if Any.

Works Cited List Example  

W.P. "On the Fur Trade." Agricultural Magazine, vol. 6, no. 30, Jan. 1802, pp. 9-12. American Antiquarian Society (AAS) Historical Periodicals Collection: Series 1.

  Note: This source is written by an author known only by initials; therefore, the easiest method is to treat the initials as a unit. Use the initials in your in-text citation and list the entry under the first initial in your Works Cited list. 

  Note: This source does not have a doi number, so this information is omitted.  

In-Text Citation Example  

  (Author's Last Name Page Number)

  Example: (W.P. 9)

  Note: While MLA 8th edition recommends including URLs, Columbia College Library recommends that URLs be left out when citing a work found in a library database. Because library databases require a login most URLs will stop working after the session ends. If your instructor requires a URL, look for the "Permalink" icon in the article description and place the URL generated after the name of the database.