Check out our Plagiarism Tutorial to learn more about using sources in your assignments.
Direct quotations taken from sources - place quotation marks around direct quotes as you write them down.
Paraphrased ideas and opinions taken from someone else's work.
Summaries of ideas taken from someone else's work.
Factual information, including statistics or other data unless it is considered common knowledge.
You must cite all sources used in all assignments that you create. It does not matter what format your assignment (for example, presenation or paper) is in or where in your assignment you use a quote, summary, paraphrase or statistics.
When writing an essay, the only source material you do not have to cite is information that is considered common knowledge. Common knowledge generally refers to any well-established, uncontroversial fact about the world, or a fact that cannot be attributed to a single source. However, common knowledge does not necessarily mean that everyone knows it.
A general rule is that you can consider information common knowledge if you can find that information uncredited in 5 credible sources.
If you're not sure if something is common knowledge, it's better to be safe and cite it!
Bales, Kevin. Blood and Earth: Modern Slavery, Ecocide, and the Secret to Saving the World. Spiegel & Grau, 2016.
|Title:||Blood and Earth: Modern Slavery, Ecocide, and the Secret to Saving the World|
|Publisher||Spiegel & Grau|
|Date of publication:||2016|
Clues that this citation is for an entire book:
Aydarova, O. (2015). Global discourses and local responses: A dialogic perspective on educational reforms in the Russian Federation. European Education, 47(4), 331-345. doi:10.1080/10564934.2015.1107375
|Title||Global discourses and local responses: A dialogic perspective on educational reforms in the Russian Federation|
|Journal title||European Education|
|Volume & Issue||47(4) - Volume 47, Issue 4|
Clues that this is a journal article:
Authier, P. (2016, Nov 02). Quebec tightens rules for spying on journalists; press freedom is fundamental, premier says. The Vancouver Sun, N8.
|Date||November 2, 2016|
|Title||Quebec tightens rules for spying on journalists; press freedom is fundamental, premier says|
|Title of newspaper||The Vancouver Sun|
Clues that this is a newspaper article: