The homeless were typically neglected growing up since they "commonly come from families who are riddled with problems and marital disharmony" (Rokach, 2005, p. 477).
As Rokach (2005) notes, the homeless "often have no one to care for them and no one knows them intimately" (p. 477).
Option one is the standard APA in-text citation format for quoting.
If your quotation extends to more than forty words as you're typing your essay, it is a long quotation. This can also be referred to as a block quotation.
Rules for Long Quotations
There are 4 rules that apply to long quotations that are different from regular quotations:
Example of a Long Quotation
At the end of Lord of the Flies the boys are struck with the realization of their behaviour:
The tears began to flow and sobs shook him. He gave himself up to them now for the first time on the island; great, shuddering spasms of grief that seemed to wrench his whole body. His voice rose under the black smoke before the burning wreckage of the island; and infected by that emotion, the other little boys began to shake and sob too. (Golding, 1960, p.186)
When you quote from electronic sources that do not provide page numbers (like Web pages), cite the heading and the paragraph number following it:
Bowlby described "three phases of the separation response: protest, despair, and detachment" (Garelli, 2001, Bowlby's Initial Stance section, para. 3).
If a source has no page numbers, no paragraph numbers and no headings, skip that part of the in-text citation. The in-text citation would have the author(s) last names and the year, e.g. (Garellio, 2001).
Where you'd normally put the author's last name, instead use the first one, two, or three words from the title. Don't count initial articles like "A", "An" or "The". You should provide enough words to make it clear which work you're referring to from your References List.
If the title in the References list is in italics, italicize the words from the title in the in-text citation.
If you are citing an article, a chapter of a book or a page from a website, put the words in double quotation marks.
(Cell Biology, 2012, p. 157)
("Nursing," 2011, p. 9)
No Known Date of Publication:
Where you'd normally put the year of publication, instead use the letters "n.d.".
(Smith, n.d., p. 200)
|Number of Authors/Editors||First Time Paraphrased||Second and Subsequent Times Paraphrased||First Time Quoting||Second and Subsequent Times Quoting|
(Case & Daristotle, 2011)
(Case & Daristotle, 2011)
|(Case & Daristotle, 2011, p. 57)||(Case & Daristotle, 2011, p. 57)|
|Three to Five||(Case, Daristotle, Hayek, Smith, & Raash, 2011)||(Case et al., 2011)||(Case, Daristotle, Hayekm, Smith, & Raash, 2011, p. 57)||(Case et al., 2011, p. 57)|
|Six or More||
(Case et al., 2011)
|(Case et al., 2011)||(Case et al., 2011, p. 57)||(Case et al., 2011, p. 57)|
|Type of Group||First Time Paraphrased||Second and Subsequent Times Paraphrased||First Time Quoting||Second and Subsequent Times Quoting|
|Groups readily identified through abbreviations||
National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH, 2003)
|National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH, 2003, p. 5)||(NIMH, 2003, p. 5)|
|Groups with no abbreviations||(University of Pittsburgh, 2005)||(University of Pittsburgh, 2005)||(University of Pittsburgh, 2005, p. 2)||(University of Pittsburgh, 2005, p. 2)|