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APA Citation Guide (6th edition): Books & eBooks

This guide shows you how to cite using APA 6th edition

Formatting

Note: All citations should be double spaced and have a hanging indent in a Reference List.

A "hanging indent" means that each subsequent line after the first line of your citation should be indented by 0.5 inches.

How Can I Tell if it's a Book in Print or an eBook?

A print book means it's printed on paper. If you checked the book out of a library or bought it from a bookstore, it's print.

An eBook is a book you can read entirely online.

Tips

Authors/Editors

An author won't necessarily be a person's name. It may be an organization or company, for example Health Canada. These are called group or corporate authors.

If a book has no author or editor, begin the citation with the book title, followed by the year of publication in round brackets.

If an author is also the publisher, put the word "Author" where you'd normally put the publisher name. This happens most often with corporate or group authors.

When a book has one to seven authors or editors, all authors' names are cited in the Reference List entry. When a book has eight or more authors or editors, list the first six authors followed by three spaced ellipse points (. . .) , and then the last author's name. Rules are different for in-text citations; please see the examples provided.

Titles

Capitalize the first letter of the first word of the title. If there is a colon (:) in the title, also capitalize the first letter of the first word after the colon.

Capitalize the first letter of proper names in titles, such as names of places or people. Example: Canada

Place of Publication

For cities in the US and Canada list the city name and the province or state code. For other countries, list the city name and the country. Examples: Toronto, ON ; Tokyo, Japan

Electronic Books

Don't include the place of publication or a publisher for an electronic book (ebook). Instead follow the rules below:‚Äč

Ebooks from Websites (not from library databases)

If an ebook from a website was originally published in print, give the author, year, title, edition (if given) and the url. If it was never published in print, treat it like a multi-page website.

Book In Print With One Author

Author's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if Given. (Year of Publication). Title of book: Subtitle if given (edition if given and is not first edition). Publication City, Province, State or Country: Publisher Name often shortened.

Note: For cities in the US and Canada list the city name and the province or state code. For other countries, list the city name and the country.

Example

Watson, J. (2012). Human caring science: A theory of nursing (2nd ed.). Sudbury, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning.

Note: For cities in the US and Canada list the city name and the province or state code. For other countries, list the city name and the country.

In-Text Paraphrase

(Author's Last Name, Year)

Example: (Watson, 2012)

In-Text Quote

(Author's Last Name, Year, p. Page Number)

Example: (Watson, 2012, p. 70)

Book in Print with Two to Seven Authors

Last Name of First Author, First Initial. Second Initial if Given, & Last Name of Second Author, First Initial. Second Initial if Given. (Year of Publication). Title of book: Subtitle if given (edition if given and is not first edition). Publication City, Province, State or Country: Publisher Name often shortened.

Note: Authors' names are separated by commas. Put a comma and an ampersand (&) before the name of the last author cited.

For cities in the US and Canada list the city name and the province or state code. For other countries, list the city name and the country.

Example

Case, L. P., Daristotle, L., Hayek, M. G., & Raash, M. F. (2011). Canine and feline nutrition : A resource for companion animal professionals (3rd ed.). Maryland Heights, MO: Mosby.

Note: For cities in the US and Canada list the city name and the province or state code. For other countries, list the city name and the country.

In-text See chart for in-text rules for 2 or more authors.

Book With Group or Corporate Author

Name of Corporate Author. (Year of Publication). Title of book: Subtitle if given (edition if given and is not first edition). Publication City, Province, State or Country: Publisher Name often shortened.

Note: For cities in the US and Canada list the city name and the province or state code. For other countries, list the city name and the country.

Example

American Psychological Association. (2010). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.

Note: For cities in the US and Canada list the city name and the province or state code. For other countries, list the city name and the country.

If the Corporate Author is also the publisher of the book, put the word "Author" where you'd normally put the Publisher Name.

In-Text 

See chart for in-text rules for group or corporate authors.

Chapters, Short Stories, Essays, or Articles From a Book (Anthology or Collection)

Author's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if Given. (Year of Publication). Title of chapter, article, essay or short story. In Editor's First Initial. Second Initial if Given. Editor's Last Name (Ed.), Title of book (edition if given and is not first edition, pp. first page number-last page number). Publication City, Province, State or Country: Publisher Name often shortened.

Note:

If you have more than one editor list their name(s) after the first editor listed in the book, giving their initials and last name. Put an ampersand (&) before the last editor's name.

When you have one editor the short form (Ed.) is used after the editor's name. If you have more than one editor use (Eds.) instead.

For cities in the US and Canada list the city name and the province or state code. For other countries, list the city name and the country.

Example

Stockert, P.A. & Taylor, C. (2014). Sleep. In P.A. Potter, A.G. Perry, J.C. Ross-Kerr & M.J. Wood (Eds.), Canadian fundamentals of nursing (5th Cdn. ed., pp. 993-1016). Toronto, ON: Elsevier.

Note: If there is no editor given you may leave out that part of the citation.

In-Text Paraphrase

(Author's Last Name, Year) See chart here for in-text rules for 2 or more authors.

Example (2 authors): (Stockert & Taylor, 2014)

In-Text Quote

(Author's Last Name, Year, p. Page Number) See chart here for in-text rules for 2 or more authors.

Example (2 authors): (Stockert & Taylor, 2014, p. 998)

eBook From a Library Database with One Author

Author's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if Given. (Year of Publication). Title of book: Subtitle if given (edition if given and is not first edition). Retrieved from Database Name database.

Example

Waldau, P. (2010). Animal rights: What everyone needs to know. Retrieved from eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) database. 

In-Text Paraphrase

(Author's Last Name, Year)

Example: (Waldau, 2010)

In-Text Quote

(Author's Last Name, Year, p. Page Number)

Example: (Waldau, 2010, p. 101)

eBook From a Library Database with Two to Seven Authors

Last Name of First Author, First Initial. Second Initial if Given, & Last Name of Second Author, First Initial. Second Initial if Given. (Year of Publication). Title of book: Subtitle if given (edition if given and is not first edition). Retrieved from Database Name database.

Example

Simpson, M. T., Backman, K., & Corley, J. E. (2012). Hands-on ethical hacking and network defense. Retrieved from Safari Books Online database.

In-Text See chart

eBook From a Website with One Author

Author's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if Given. (Year of Publication). Title of book: Subtitle if given (edition if given and is not first edition) [Name of Electronic Book Provider or Device version if any, e.g. Google Books version, Kobo version]. Retrieved from URL

Example

Nightingale, F. (1860). Notes on nursing: What it is, and what it is not [Google Books version]. Retrieved from http://books.google.ca/books?id=YxIDAAAAQAAJ&dq=nursing&pg=PR5#v=onepage&q&f=false

In-Text Paraphrase

(Author's Last Name, Year)

Example: (Nightingale, 1860)

In-Text Quote

(Author's Last Name, Year, p. Page Number)

Example: (Nightingale, 1860, p. 157)

eBook From a Website with Two to Seven Authors

Last Name of First Author, First Initial. Second Initial if Given, & Last Name of Second Author, First Initial. Second Initial if Given. (Year of Publication). Title of book: Subtitle if given (edition if given and is not first edition) [Name of Electronic Book Provider or Device version if any, e.g. Google Books version, Kobo version]. Retrieved from URL

Example

Allen, G. M., & Tozzer, A. M. (1910). Animal figures in the Maya codices. [Project Gutenburg version]. Retrieved from http://www.gutenberg.org/ebooks/19042

In-Text See chart

In-Text Citation For Two or More Authors/Editors

Number of Authors/Editors First Time Paraphrased Second and Subsequent Times Paraphrased First Time Quoting Second and Subsequent Times Quoting
Two

(Case & Daristotle, 2011)

(Case & Daristotle, 2011)

(Case & Daristotle, 2011, p. 57) (Case & Daristotle, 2011, p. 57)
Three to Five (Case, Daristotle, Hayek, Smith, & Raash, 2011) (Case et al., 2011) (Case, Daristotle, Hayekm, Smith, & Raash, 2011, p. 57) (Case et al., 2011, p. 57)
Six or More

(Case et al., 2011)

(Case et al., 2011) (Case et al., 2011, p. 57) (Case et al., 2011, p. 57)

No Author

If no author or creator is provided, start the citation with the title/name of the item you are citing instead. Follow the title/name of the item with the date of publication, and the continue with other citation details.

Remember: an author/creator may be an organization or corporation, for example Health Canada. If you don't have a person's name as the author, but do have the name of an organization or corporation, put that organization/corporation's name as the author.

Anonymous

If and only if an item is signed as being created by Anonymous, use "Anonymous" where you'd normally put the author's name.

In-Text

When you have no author, use a shortened version of the title where you'd normally put the author's name.

If you're citing something which is part of a bigger work, like an article from a magazine, newspaper, journal, encyclopedia, or chapter/short story from a book, put the shortened title in quotation marks in your in-text citation:

Example, paraphrase: ("A few words," 2014)

If you're citing an entire work, like a book, website, video, etc., italicize the shortened title in your in-text citation:

Example, paraphrase: (A few words, 2014)

FAQ - Works by the Same Author with the Same Year

When you are citing two different sources that share the same author and year of publication, assign lowercase letters after the year of publication (a, b, c, etc.). Assign these letters according to which title comes first alphabetically. Use these letters in both in-text citations and the Reference list.

Example In-Text:

Paraphrasing content from first source by this author (Daristotle, 2015a). "Now I am quoting from the second source by the same author" (Daristotle, 2015b, p. 50).

Example Reference List entries:

Daristotle, J. (2015a). Name of book used as first source. Toronto, ON: Fancy Publisher.

Daristotle, J. (2015b). Title of book used as second source. Toronto, ON: Very Fancy Publisher.

 

In-Text Citation for Group or Corporate Authors

Type of Group First Time Paraphrased Second and Subsequent Times Paraphrased First Time Quoting Second and Subsequent Times Quoting
Groups readily identified through abbreviations

National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH, 2003)

(NIMH, 2003)

National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH, 2003, p. 5) (NIMH, 2003, p. 5)
Groups with no abbreviations (University of Pittsburgh, 2005) (University of Pittsburgh, 2005) (University of Pittsburgh, 2005, p. 2) (University of Pittsburgh, 2005, p. 2)